Masks Are Neither Effective Nor Safe: A Summary Of The Science

At this writing, there is a recent surge in widespread use by the public of facemasks when in public places, including for extended periods of time, in the United States as well as in other countries.   The public has been instructed by media and their governments that one’s use of masks, even if not sick, may prevent others from being infected with SARS-CoV-2, the infectious agent of COVID-19.

A review of the peer-reviewed medical literature examines impacts on human health, both immunological, as well as physiological.  The purpose of this paper is to examine data regarding the effectiveness of facemasks, as well as safety data.  The reason that both are examined in one paper is that for the general public as a whole, as well as for every individual, a risk-benefit analysis is necessary to guide decisions on if and when to wear a mask.

Are masks effective at preventing transmission of respiratory pathogens?

In this meta-analysis, face masks were found to have no detectable effect against transmission of viral infections. (1)  It found: “Compared to no masks, there was no reduction of influenza-like illness cases or influenza for masks in the general population, nor in healthcare workers.”

This 2020 meta-analysis found that evidence from randomized controlled trials of face masks did not support a substantial effect on transmission of laboratory-confirmed influenza, either when worn by infected persons (source control) or by persons in the general community to reduce their susceptibility. (2)

Another recent review found that masks had no effect specifically against Covid-19, although facemask use seemed linked to, in 3 of 31 studies, “very slightly reduced” odds of developing influenza-like illness. (3)

This 2019 study of 2862 participants showed that both N95 respirators and surgical masks “resulted in no significant difference in the incidence of laboratory confirmed influenza." (4)

This 2016 meta-analysis found that both randomized controlled trials and observational studies of N95 respirators and surgical masks used by healthcare workers did not show benefit against transmission of acute respiratory infections.  It was also found that acute respiratory infection transmission “may have occurred via contamination of provided respiratory protective equipment during storage and reuse of masks and respirators throughout the workday.” (5)

A 2011 meta-analysis of 17 studies regarding masks and effect on transmission of influenza found that “none of the studies established a conclusive relationship between mask/respirator use and protection against influenza infection.” (6)  However, authors speculated that effectiveness of masks may be linked to early, consistent and correct usage.

Face mask use was likewise found to be not protective against the common cold, compared to controls without face masks among healthcare workers. (7)

Airflow around masks

Masks have been assumed to be effective in obstructing forward travel of viral particles.  Considering those positioned next to or behind a mask wearer, there have been farther transmission of virus-laden fluid particles from masked individuals than from unmasked individuals, by means of “several leakage jets, including intense backward and downwards jets that may present major hazards,” and a “potentially dangerous leakage jet of up to several meters.”  (8) All masks were thought to reduce forward airflow by 90% or more over wearing no mask.  However, Schlieren imaging showed that both surgical masks and cloth masks had farther brow jets (unfiltered upward airflow past eyebrows) than not wearing any mask at all, 182 mm and 203 mm respectively, vs none discernible with no mask.  Backward unfiltered airflow was found to be strong with all masks compared to not masking.

For both N95 and surgical masks, it was found that expelled particles from 0.03 to 1 micron were deflected around the edges of each mask, and that there was measurable penetration of particles through the filter of each mask. (9)

Penetration through masks

A study of 44 mask brands found mean 35.6% penetration (+ 34.7%).  Most medical masks had over 20% penetration, while “general masks and handkerchiefs had no protective function in terms of the aerosol filtration efficiency.”  The study found that “Medical masks, general masks, and handkerchiefs were found to provide little protection against respiratory aerosols.” (10)

It may be helpful to remember that an aerosol is a colloidal suspension of liquid or solid particles in a gas.  In respiration, the relevant aerosol is the suspension of bacterial or viral particles in inhaled or exhaled breath.

In another study, penetration of cloth masks by particles was almost 97% and medical masks 44%. (11)

N95 respirators

Honeywell is a manufacturer of N95 respirators.  These are made with a 0.3 micron filter. (12)  N95 respirators are so named, because 95% of particles having a diameter of 0.3 microns are filtered by the mask forward of the wearer, by use of an electrostatic mechanism. Coronaviruses are approximately 0.125 microns in diameter.

This meta-analysis found that N95 respirators did not provide superior protection to facemasks against viral infections or influenza-like infections. (13)  This study did find superior protection by N95 respirators when they were fit-tested compared to surgical masks. (14)

This study found that 624 out of 714 people wearing N95 masks left visible gaps when putting on their own masks. (15)

Surgical masks

This study found that surgical masks offered no protection at all against influenza. (16) Another study found that surgical masks had about 85% penetration ratio of aerosolized inactivated influenza particles and about 90% of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, although S aureus particles were about 6x the diameter of influenza particles. (17)

Use of masks in surgery were found to slightly increase incidence of infection over not masking in a study of 3,088 surgeries. (18)  The surgeons’ masks were found to give no protective effect to the patients.

Other studies found no difference in wound infection rates with and without surgical masks. (19) (20)

This study found that “there is a lack of substantial evidence to support claims that facemasks protect either patient or surgeon from infectious contamination.” (21)

This study found that medical masks have a wide range of filtration efficiency, with most showing a 30% to 50% efficiency. (22)

Specifically, are surgical masks effective in stopping human transmission of coronaviruses?  Both experimental and control groups, masked and unmasked respectively, were found to “not shed detectable virus in respiratory droplets or aerosols.” (23) In that study, they “did not confirm the infectivity of coronavirus” as found in exhaled breath.

A study of aerosol penetration showed that two of the five surgical masks studied had 51% to 89% penetration of polydisperse aerosols.  (24)

In another study, that observed subjects while coughing, “neither surgical nor cotton masks effectively filtered SARS-CoV-2 during coughs by infected patients.”  And more viral particles were found on the outside than on the inside of masks tested. (25)

Cloth masks

Cloth masks were found to have low efficiency for blocking particles of 0.3 microns and smaller.  Aerosol penetration through the various cloth masks examined in this study were between 74 and 90%.  Likewise, the filtration efficiency of fabric materials was 3% to 33% (26)

Healthcare workers wearing cloth masks were found to have 13 times the risk of influenza-like illness than those wearing medical masks. (27)

This 1920 analysis of cloth mask use during the 1918 pandemic examines the failure of masks to impede or stop flu transmission at that time, and concluded that the number of layers of fabric required to prevent pathogen penetration would have required a suffocating number of layers, and could not be used for that reason, as well as the problem of leakage vents around the edges of cloth masks. (28)

Masks against Covid-19

The New England Journal of Medicine editorial on the topic of mask use versus Covid-19 assesses the matter as follows:

“We know that wearing a mask outside health care facilities offers little, if any, protection from infection.  Public health authorities define a significant exposure to Covid-19 as face-to-face contact within 6 feet with a patient with symptomatic Covid-19 that is sustained for at least a few minutes (and some say more than 10 minutes or even 20 minutes).  The chance of catching Covid-19 from a passing interaction in a public space is therefore minimal.  In many cases, the desire for widespread masking is a reflexive reaction to anxiety over the pandemic.” (29)

Are masks safe?

During walking or other exercise

Surgical mask wearers had significantly increased dyspnea after a 6-minute walk than non-mask wearers. (30)

Researchers are concerned about possible burden of facemasks during physical activity on pulmonary, circulatory and immune systems, due to oxygen reduction and air trapping reducing substantial carbon dioxide exchange.  As a result of hypercapnia, there may be cardiac overload, renal overload, and a shift to metabolic acidosis. (31)

Risks of N95 respirators

Pregnant healthcare workers were found to have a loss in volume of oxygen consumption by 13.8% compared to controls when wearing N95 respirators.  17.7% less carbon dioxide was exhaled. (32)  Patients with end-stage renal disease were studied during use of N95 respirators.  Their partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) decreased significantly compared to controls and increased respiratory adverse effects. (33)   19% of the patients developed various degrees of hypoxemia while wearing the masks.

Healthcare workers’ N95 respirators were measured by personal bioaerosol samplers to harbor influenza virus. (34)  And 25% of healthcare workers’ facepiece respirators were found to contain influenza in an emergency department during the 2015 flu season. (35)

Risks of surgical masks

Healthcare workers’ surgical masks also were measured by personal bioaerosol samplers to harbor for influenza virus. (36)

Various respiratory pathogens were found on the outer surface of used medical masks, which could result in self-contamination.  The risk was found to be higher with longer duration of mask use. (37)

Surgical masks were also found to be a repository of bacterial contamination.  The source of the bacteria was determined to be the body surface of the surgeons, rather than the operating room environment. (38)  Given that surgeons are gowned from head to foot for surgery, this finding should be especially concerning for laypeople who wear masks.  Without the protective garb of surgeons, laypeople generally have even more exposed body surface to serve as a source for bacteria to collect on their masks.

Risks of cloth masks

Healthcare workers wearing cloth masks had significantly higher rates of influenza-like illness after four weeks of continuous on-the-job use, when compared to controls. (39)

The increased rate of infection in mask-wearers may be due to a weakening of immune function during mask use.  Surgeons have been found to have lower oxygen saturation after surgeries even as short as 30 minutes. (40)  Low oxygen induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1). (41)  This in turn down-regulates CD4+ T-cells.  CD4+ T-cells, in turn, are necessary for viral immunity. (42)

Weighing risks versus benefits of mask use

In the summer of 2020 the United States is experiencing a surge of popular mask use, which is frequently promoted by the media, political leaders and celebrities.  Homemade and store-bought cloth masks and surgical masks or N95 masks are being used by the public especially when entering stores and other publicly accessible buildings.  Sometimes bandanas or scarves are used.  The use of face masks, whether cloth, surgical or N95, creates a poor obstacle to aerosolized pathogens as we can see from the meta-analyses and other studies in this paper, allowing both transmission of aerosolized pathogens to others in various directions, as well as self-contamination.

It must also be considered that masks impede the necessary volume of air intake required for adequate oxygen exchange, which results in observed physiological effects that may be undesirable.  Even 6- minute walks, let alone more strenuous activity, resulted in dyspnea.  The volume of unobstructed oxygen in a typical breath is about 100 ml, used for normal physiological processes.  100 ml O2 greatly exceeds the volume of a pathogen required for transmission.

The foregoing data show that masks serve more as instruments of obstruction of normal breathing, rather than as effective barriers to pathogens. Therefore, masks should not be used by the general public, either by adults or children, and their limitations as prophylaxis against pathogens should also be considered in medical settings.

Endnotes

1  T Jefferson, M Jones, et al. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. MedRxiv. 2020 Apr 7.

https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.30.20047217v2

2  J Xiao, E Shiu, et al. Nonpharmaceutical measures for pandemic influenza in non-healthcare settings – personal protective and environmental measures.  Centers for Disease Control. 26(5); 2020 May.

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/5/19-0994_article

3  J Brainard, N Jones, et al. Facemasks and similar barriers to prevent respiratory illness such as COVID19: A rapid systematic review.  MedRxiv. 2020 Apr 1.

https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.01.20049528v1.full.pdf

4  L Radonovich M Simberkoff, et al. N95 respirators vs medical masks for preventing influenza among health care personnel: a randomized clinic trial.  JAMA. 2019 Sep 3. 322(9): 824-833.

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2749214

5  J Smith, C MacDougall. CMAJ. 2016 May 17. 188(8); 567-574.

https://www.cmaj.ca/content/188/8/567

6  F bin-Reza, V Lopez, et al. The use of masks and respirators to prevent transmission of influenza: a systematic review of the scientific evidence. 2012 Jul; 6(4): 257-267.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5779801/

7  J Jacobs, S Ohde, et al.  Use of surgical face masks to reduce the incidence of the common cold among health care workers in Japan: a randomized controlled trial.  Am J Infect Control. 2009 Jun; 37(5): 417-419.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19216002/

8  M Viola, B Peterson, et al. Face coverings, aerosol dispersion and mitigation of virus transmission risk.

https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.10720https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/2005/2005.10720.pdf

9  S Grinshpun, H Haruta, et al. Performance of an N95 filtering facepiece particular respirator and a surgical mask during human breathing: two pathways for particle penetration. J Occup Env Hygiene. 2009; 6(10):593-603.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/15459620903120086

10 H Jung, J Kim, et al. Comparison of filtration efficiency and pressure drop in anti-yellow sand masks, quarantine masks, medical masks, general masks, and handkerchiefs. Aerosol Air Qual Res. 2013 Jun. 14:991-1002.

https://aaqr.org/articles/aaqr-13-06-oa-0201.pdf

11  C MacIntyre, H Seale, et al. A cluster randomized trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers.  BMJ Open. 2015; 5(4)

https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/4/e006577.long

12  N95 masks explained. https://www.honeywell.com/en-us/newsroom/news/2020/03/n95-masks-explained

13  V Offeddu, C Yung, et al. Effectiveness of masks and respirators against infections in healthcare workers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  Clin Inf Dis. 65(11), 2017 Dec 1; 1934-1942.

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/65/11/1934/4068747

14  C MacIntyre, Q Wang, et al. A cluster randomized clinical trial comparing fit-tested and non-fit-tested N95 respirators to medical masks to prevent respiratory virus infection in health care workers. Influenza J. 2010 Dec 3.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00198.x?fbclid=IwAR3kRYVYDKb0aR-su9_me9_vY6a8KVR4HZ17J2A_80f_fXUABRQdhQlc8Wo

15  M Walker. Study casts doubt on N95 masks for the public. MedPage Today. 2020 May 20.

https://www.medpagetoday.com/infectiousdisease/publichealth/86601

16  C MacIntyre, Q Wang, et al. A cluster randomized clinical trial comparing fit-tested and non-fit-tested N95 respirators to medical masks to prevent respiratory virus infection in health care workers. Influenza J. 2010 Dec 3.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00198.x?fbclid=IwAR3kRYVYDKb0aR-su9_me9_vY6a8KVR4HZ17J2A_80f_fXUABRQdhQlc8Wo

17  N Shimasaki, A Okaue, et al. Comparison of the filter efficiency of medical nonwoven fabrics against three different microbe aerosols. Biocontrol Sci.  2018; 23(2). 61-69.

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bio/23/2/23_61/_pdf/-char/en

18  T Tunevall. Postoperative wound infections and surgical face masks: A controlled study. World J Surg. 1991 May; 15: 383-387.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01658736

19  N Orr. Is a mask necessary in the operating theatre? Ann Royal Coll Surg Eng 1981: 63: 390-392.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2493952/pdf/annrcse01509-0009.pdf

20  N Mitchell, S Hunt. Surgical face masks in modern operating rooms – a costly and unnecessary ritual?  J Hosp Infection. 18(3); 1991 Jul 1. 239-242.

https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/0195-6701(91)90148-2/pdf

21  C DaZhou, P Sivathondan, et al. Unmasking the surgeons: the evidence base behind the use of facemasks in surgery.  JR Soc Med. 2015 Jun; 108(6): 223-228.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4480558/

22  L Brosseau, M Sietsema. Commentary: Masks for all for Covid-19 not based on sound data. U Minn Ctr Inf Dis Res Pol. 2020 Apr 1.

https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2020/04/commentary-masks-all-covid-19-not-based-sound-data

23  N Leung, D Chu, et al. Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks Nature Research.  2020 Mar 7. 26,676-680 (2020).

https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-16836/v1

24  S Rengasamy, B Eimer, et al. Simple respiratory protection – evaluation of the filtration performance of cloth masks and common fabric materials against 20-1000 nm size particles. Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Oct; 54(7): 789-798.

https://academic.oup.com/annweh/article/54/7/789/202744

25  S Bae, M Kim, et al. Effectiveness of surgical and cotton masks in blocking SARS-CoV-2: A controlled comparison in 4 patients.  Ann Int Med. 2020 Apr 6.

https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/M20-1342

26  S Rengasamy, B Eimer, et al. Simple respiratory protection – evaluation of the filtration performance of cloth masks and common fabric materials against 20-1000 nm size particles. Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Oct; 54(7): 789-798.

https://academic.oup.com/annweh/article/54/7/789/202744

27  C MacIntyre, H Seale, et al. A cluster randomized trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers.  BMJ Open. 2015; 5(4)

https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/4/e006577.long

28  W Kellogg. An experimental study of the efficacy of gauze face masks. Am J Pub Health. 1920.  34-42.

https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.10.1.34

29  M Klompas, C Morris, et al. Universal masking in hospitals in the Covid-19 era. N Eng J Med. 2020; 382 e63.

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2006372

30  E Person, C Lemercier et al.  Effect of a surgical mask on six minute walking distance.  Rev Mal Respir. 2018 Mar; 35(3):264-268.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29395560/

31  B Chandrasekaran, S Fernandes.  Exercise with facemask; are we handling a devil’s sword – a physiological hypothesis. Med Hypothese. 2020 Jun 22. 144:110002.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32590322/

32  P Shuang Ye Tong, A Sugam Kale, et al.  Respiratory consequences of N95-type mask usage in pregnant healthcare workers – A controlled clinical study.  Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2015 Nov 16; 4:48.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26579222/

33  T Kao, K Huang, et al. The physiological impact of wearing an N95 mask during hemodialysis as a precaution against SARS in patients with end-stage renal disease.  J Formos Med Assoc. 2004 Aug; 103(8):624-628.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15340662/

34  F Blachere, W Lindsley et al. Assessment of influenza virus exposure and recovery from contaminated surgical masks and N95 respirators. J Viro Methods.  2018 Oct; 260:98-106.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30029810/

35  A Rule, O Apau, et al. Healthcare personnel exposure in an emergency department during influenza season.  PLoS One. 2018 Aug 31; 13(8): e0203223.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30169507/

36  F Blachere, W Lindsley et al. Assessment of influenza virus exposure and recovery from contaminated surgical masks and N95 respirators. J Viro Methods.  2018 Oct; 260:98-106.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30029810/

37  A Chughtai, S Stelzer-Braid, et al.  Contamination by respiratory viruses on our surface of medical masks used by hospital healthcare workers.  BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 3; 19(1): 491.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31159777/

38  L Zhiqing, C Yongyun, et al. J Orthop Translat. 2018 Jun 27; 14:57-62.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30035033/

39  C MacIntyre, H Seale, et al. A cluster randomized trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers.  BMJ Open. 2015; 5(4)

https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/4/e006577

40  A Beder, U Buyukkocak, et al. Preliminary report on surgical mask induced deoxygenation during major surgery. Neurocirugia. 2008; 19: 121-126.

http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/neuro/v19n2/3.pdf

41  D Lukashev, B Klebanov, et al. Cutting edge: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and its activation-inducible short isoform negatively regulate functions of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2006 Oct 15; 177(8) 4962-4965.

https://www.jimmunol.org/content/177/8/4962

42  A Sant, A McMichael. Revealing the role of CD4+ T-cells in viral immunity.  J Exper Med. 2012 Jun 30; 209(8):1391-1395.

https://europepmc.org/article/PMC/3420330

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  • Thomas Frank
    commented 2020-09-25 18:04:00 -0700
    C.A. I take vitamins and believe in them but to say super large doses have effects like you are talking about have never been proven with long term studies and are only anecdotal at best.Its common sense that the body can only assimilate so much at a time so taking super large doses only gives you the most expense urine and feces in town.
  • Chuck Andreas
    commented 2020-09-25 14:33:14 -0700
    T.F.: We were watching Dr. John Bergman about “Chronic Disease” and he talks about polio in Africa and the polio vaccine starting just before the 28 minute mark. Included for your convenience; (he gives his references to govt documents too): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WDHXFhMSqY0
  • Chuck Andreas
    commented 2020-09-24 21:20:28 -0700
    T.M., You are correct with addition of vit D (another anti-microbial). I personally take 5-7g vit C (spread throughout the day), 2-4k units vit D, and 500mg vit E (mixed tropherols), all anti-microbial. And other supplements. Check out Andrew Saul’s website: www.doctoryourself.com for a wealth of info. He also in on the board of orthomolecular.org.

    T.F., You are correct in Dr. Salk made the polio vaccine shot, Dr. Sabin made the oral polio vaccine. Their is some debate on polio’s origins and the extent of “cure”. Take a look at the latest polio outbreaks in Africa. Contact the polio vaccine with the vit C cures with Dr. Klenner. He has many detailed papers on the positive outcomes on vit C against all sorts of disease such as polio, tetanus, gangrene, and many other manifestations. Riordan Clinic in Kansas has tremendous success in a list of diseases using large dose IV Vit C. Oral dose for prevention, IV for disease manifestation treatment.
  • Thomas Frank
    commented 2020-09-24 18:56:53 -0700
    I think Dr. Salk cured polio
  • Tim McMurphy
    commented 2020-09-24 18:47:07 -0700
    " Chuck Andreas: Additional cure is mega dose vit C via IV. "
    I heard about it but haven’t had time to track down the details yet. I wouldn’t surprise me, in fact I would be surprised if it didn’t work given Dr Klenner’s work in the late 40’s and 50’s curing polio and measles with it.

    Dr Levy has a 0.1% H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) + saline solution protocol done with a nebulizer. I’m giving that one a try as it is getting close to influenza season. It could be an interesting addition to the vitamin D (which also helps against all viral infections). Along with quercetin, EGCG and zinc.
  • Chuck Andreas
    commented 2020-09-22 06:44:45 -0700
    In order to understand why conspiracy theories abound, one needs to understand it’s underpinnings, the Hegelian Dialectic. Basically, you create a problem, provide a solution, to achieve an end result. “SmackTalkingEer” gives an excellent short read on how HD is used today. https://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/event201/.
    Most people don’t notice it in play. That’s why it’s a powerful tool used by many people/govt.

    And to fully understand what is happening in our world, we need to know about “false flags”, as it is also used together w/HD. A false flag is exactly what it says; an entity signals that it is common/friend of another entity, but upon getting closer together, the first reveals their real position (as an enemy) by their actions. https://www.dictionary.com/browse/false-flag gives definition a some simple examples in history. For more details and examples, start here: https://www.falseflag.info/ft-sumter/

    Regarding Pearl Harbor, we now know FDR not only had advance knowledge of the coming attack, https://www.independent.org/issues/article.asp?id=408, but may have allowed it to bring the USA into war with Japan. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Pearl-Harbor-and-the-back-door-to-war-theory-1688287

    Another example of a conspiracy, documents now declassified on the “Gulf of Tonkin Incident”, was a false flag event. https://allthatsinteresting.com/gulf-of-tonkin

    These are just a tiny bit of proof that conspiracy “theories” are only theories until proven true. Then they are just conspiracies to do some event for benefit of a few, and detriment to others. Do your own research. There are many, many more recent examples too, of both false flags, and conspiracies.

    Sadly, we, the common people, receive the detrimental effects of the few, like disease and death. This is why we need to educate ourselves, and help each other learn about this, and how to avoid becoming a victim, as best as we can. A fur trapper carefully conceals his trap from the animal he is trapping, and uses all sorts of methods like bushes and/or scents, and bait. He may even place a distraction on the side. If we see or detect a trap in our lives, we should point out to others the snare or bait that is used. And knowledge is a tool to detect traps.I truly believe we are here to help each other. I WANT AND PRAY THE BEST FOR EVERYONE! If my efforts, like on this platform, help one individual to avoid the myriad of traps around our world, I’m happy!! Wake up, and educate yourself. Learn.
  • Evonne K
    commented 2020-09-21 21:43:02 -0700
    B.F. and C.A. Thank you for the excellent posts.

    I appreciate your work and your efforts. You have presented good cases with information and links to support your claim. There are so many conspiracies that publishers will never run out of material to print. Thanks for being generous with your time and information.

    Those who are unwilling to learn are big time wasters.
  • Thomas Frank
    commented 2020-09-21 21:19:18 -0700
    The Japanese just wanted to weaken or possibly destroy Americas foothold in the Pacific.Roosevelt would never had used the theory your talking about because they can’t control the outcome. Again conspiracy theories are intriguing that’s why there so popular now.
  • Thomas Frank
    commented 2020-09-21 20:59:23 -0700
    Conspiracy theories always come to light when really big news events happen. They are kind of intriguing to think about but in almost all cases are debunked.
  • Brian Farmer
    commented 2020-09-21 20:57:37 -0700
    TF: The Arizona Memorial is proof. If the attack on Pearl Harbor was not the result of a conspiracy, then why was it not reported before it happened?
  • Brian Farmer
    commented 2020-09-21 20:57:37 -0700
    TF: The Arizona Memorial is proof. If the attack on Pearl Harbor was not the result of a conspiracy, then why was it not reported before it happened?
  • Thomas Frank
    commented 2020-09-21 20:52:06 -0700
    B F. Pearl Harbor conspiracy theory has been debunked by many Historians and called a fringe theory .There is still no conclusive proof.
  • Chuck Andreas
    commented 2020-09-21 20:41:18 -0700
    Evonne: thank you for your common sense, reasoning, and providing backup to the driving force of the medical community/big Pharma, money!! They work hand in hand.
  • Chuck Andreas
    commented 2020-09-21 20:38:44 -0700
    B.F.: Spot on with Pearl Harbor!!

    I might mention “Operation Northwoods” (declassified) and “Operation Mongoose”.

    And if anyone wants to read a factual historical book that will make you say, “this can’t be true, this is a huge conspiracy”, get your hands on “Dr. Mary’s Monkey” by Ed Haslim. Ed is a medical researcher by profession, and his father was a naval MD, he found some info that peeked his curiosity, and he dug deeper. He ties together polio vaccines, Lee Harvey Oswald, JFK, and Ted Cruz’s father with facts and huge number of references at the back. It will blow your socks off. WARNING: some graphic photos and as I always say, question everything. It will make your head spin; but will open your mind. Read it for yourself and come to your own conclusions who did what to whom! There’s a lot of names involved, and a lot people fighting for power. Shocking. In our own government and universities.
  • Chuck Andreas
    commented 2020-09-21 20:18:10 -0700
    Oh boy, this could get exciting. Don’t know if we want to down this road. We all know about Pandora and the box. Here’s a relevant example I mentioned in an earlier post. Predictions of this pandemic:
    2017 Dr. Fauci predicts Trump would face a viral pandemic during his term.
    https://www.newsbreak.com/news/1609516800224/dr-fauci-tried-to-warn-trump-about-a-global-outbreak-before-he-took-office

    Bill Gates predicts in 2015 a future “Spanish flu like world-wide pandemic”. This is a generalization, but add in the facts that he had invested heavily in vaccines at this time and ramped up investments, including Moderna and Wellcome Institue in the UK. Plus his ties to Dr. Fauci and The WHO makes his talk troubling.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Af6b_wyiwI

    Then “Event 201” in Oct 2019 in New York in Johns-Hopkins simulating a world-wide pandemic. If you look at the details, this is creepy, knowing what we know now.

    And this one, 10 yrs prior is very specific. Rockefeller Foundation, 2010, “Scenarios for the Future of Technology and International Development”. Starting pg 18, “LockStep”. Read pg 19 and tell me it doesn’t apply. It sends shivers down my spine. Published in 2010. I found one link that is a pdf for your convenience.
    http://www.nommeraadio.ee/meedia/pdf/RRS/Rockefeller%20Foundation.pdf

    Any one of these is curious, but together, along with the players/participants, and their financial investments is very incriminating. And the coordination of all the countries, our US governors is suspicious. Why did all the blue governors say write similar EO. How did our New Mexico governor “know” that these lock-down orders would be the “norm” for the next 12-18 months or until there is a proven vaccine. She had this on the cover of her EO back in April. All health officials were saying if most the population would follow the guidelines, this virus will be gone in a month or two and we’d be back to normal. So here we are 6 months later, and it looks the same. Predicted, or conspiracy? I say the later. More 2 or more planned this, and executed it. There is a whole lot more than this. Start following the vaccines and the money connections.
  • Brian Farmer
    commented 2020-09-21 19:32:25 -0700
    TF: For example, do you think that Pearl Harbor was not the result of a conspiracy? Or do you think that it was front page news in Japanese newspapers the day before it happened?
  • Evonne K
    commented 2020-09-21 18:48:49 -0700
    Brian. Thank you for posting about conspiracies. They are prevalent in power structures. I appreciate your post.
  • Thomas Frank
    commented 2020-09-21 17:21:00 -0700
    Maybe you should start with Trump
  • Thomas Frank
    commented 2020-09-21 17:20:30 -0700
    I mean conspiracy theories that have been debunked you’ll need a large list of piece of paper to write all those on
  • Thomas Frank
    commented 2020-09-21 17:19:47 -0700
    Or maybe you should list conspiracy theories that have been proven out
  • Thomas Frank
    commented 2020-09-21 17:18:12 -0700
    Name me the conspiracy theories that have come true over the years that you are talking about
  • Brian Farmer
    commented 2020-09-21 13:05:41 -0700
    CA & E: Follow the money! Conspiracy has three elements: 1) Secrecy; 2) More than one person involved; 3) Criminal intent. People mock “conspiracy theories,” but many of history’s major events involved conspiracies. Conspiracies are not at all unusual.
  • Brian Farmer
    commented 2020-09-21 13:05:41 -0700
    CA & E: Follow the money! Conspiracy has three elements: 1) Secrecy; 2) More than one person involved; 3) Criminal intent. People mock “conspiracy theories,” but many of history’s major events involved conspiracies. Conspiracies are not at all unusual.
  • Evonne K
    commented 2020-09-21 09:04:22 -0700
    Chuck A

    Thank you for the excellent information. I agree with and appreciate your comments. Western medicine attempts to block sensible and safe remedies to illness, and at least part of the reason is profit motive, but that is well-known.

    Western medicine is highly driven by profit. I offer that excessive profit is the bigger problem. And more money is necessary for more power.

    Vitamin C has long been known to help people heal quickly from numerous illnesses, but many hospitals and doctors fight its use in favor of pharmaceutical products. Sometimes it is because they were trained by the pharmaceutical industry to believe that natural means ridiculous and useless. Often, it is because of hospital protocols and profitability from using treatments that insurers will cover.

    MSM has aided in the propaganda campaign to believe that doctors are authority figures and only they know what is best for you; therefore, you must obey. There has been a long and documented history of agents of western medicine trashing anything that goes against allopathic medical practices.

    Love those orthomolecular medical people! They are interested in enhancing wellness and minimizing harm to their patients.

    Why is Vitamin C not used more often? Because it works. It would dismantle the medical cartel and their financial and mental power over people.

    Whether you choose to believe it or not, there is a conspiracy to depopulate this planet for a select group of preferred survivors. Conspiracy requires only two people to work together for a desired result, but in this case, it involves many more than two. As tyrants get emboldened when they believe they have already won, they make mistakes and announce their intentions before they actually win. Pay attention.

    Pay attention to the messengers who tell you you have no right to decline their ill intentions against you. Who or what can you not criticize? Why? Who claims they have more rights over you than you yourself have? Keep searching and you will understand.

    Our timeline to stop the tyranny is fast approaching the tipping point. Once crossed, because of the power structure and technology, we will lose our opportunity to restrain and reverse the tyrannical end. It’s a choice, and there are plenty out there who are making that choice for us if we allow it.
  • Chuck Andreas
    commented 2020-09-21 09:00:12 -0700
    Here’s another “cure” written by Dr Levy who is a practicing MD for 44 yrs, plus a licensed attorney who gives a good summation of information suppression in the medical community, then another modality to treat Covid

    http://www.orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/index.shtml
    Enjoy!
  • Chuck Andreas
    commented 2020-09-21 08:41:33 -0700
    Couple of interesting links. First is just one article of an individual, this really has nothing to do with “masks”, but with “cures”, and his personal experience of using a “cure” for the last 40 years. Good reading: http://www.orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/v16n41.shtml

    And here’s something that is very interesting. I subscribe to Dr. Dave Janda’s Operation Freedom and was listening and I thought “this guy has some good information on this mask stuff”. So I downloaded it as a reference. I hope you guys can listen to it. Please let me know if you can or cannot play it. Listen to the guest speaker. You all know him. I was really surprised!

    https://operation-freedom-shows.s3.amazonaws.com/SEP20_2020/PatWood092020.mp3
  • Chuck Andreas
    commented 2020-09-21 07:42:43 -0700
    B.F., In regards to cures (multiple) along with T.M. list of cures, if you can find (been deleted from FB, Tw, Istragram) videos from America’s Frontline Doctors state their professional success with listed cures. Additional cure is mega dose vit C via IV. China CURED their Corona starting last week in Jan when they received 50 tons ascorbic acid (made in some China town shipped to Wuhan) and started with 25 grams/day on critical patients. Cured in less than 3 days. Thousands patients. China MD dropped to 20 grams and still cured but 4-5 days. Then reduced to 15gr/day and that was the lowest therapeutic dose to save critically ill. 3 weeks later, they received another semi load (25 tons) vitamin C to continue treatment. The biggest problem w/ critical ill patients is the “cyto-storm” as the body floods the tissues with cytokines in attempt to destroy the invading virus, but in doing so, causes massive systemic inflammation followed by massive fluid build up in the lungs. Vit C counters the “cyto-storm”, while simultaneously oxidizing the virus. Dbl whammy helping the body. Tons of info from MDs around the world in the following reference in support of cure:

    http://www.orthomolecular.org/resources/omns/index.shtml

    T.F., why are so many MDs being blocked, deleted, lives threatened from around the world for stating their professional experiences/lab results? If they are wrong, why are people flocking to their clinics for help? If its fake, or doesn’t work, let them blab it around for people to try? What are the afraid of? So what if it’s called “conspiracy”. I say the conspiracy is on the other hand, those trying to shut down this information. They are the ones CONSPIRANING (SP) to hide info. WHY? Other doctors say “there are no dbl blind peer reviewed tests to prove they work”! While allowing thousands of people to die!! There is absolutely no harm done by mega dose vit c via IV (Note: there is a very small portion of the population that does not have a gene to process ascorbic acid, but there is a simple blood test to rule that out). Many patients (cancer, viral, bacteria infected) patients who take 50 to 100grams/day/IV with amazing results. Read the above reference for the tip of the iceberg in “Cures”.
  • Evonne K
    commented 2020-09-20 21:35:40 -0700
    TF. Who is paying you to write such comments?
  • Thomas Frank
    commented 2020-09-20 19:46:02 -0700
    TM Sweden is a small homogeneous country that can’t be compared to the US.One can’t come to any conclusions by the use of an anti malaria drug that has no conclusive studies unless you read about it in conspiracy theories.
  • Tim McMurphy
    commented 2020-09-20 19:01:36 -0700
    “Thomas Frank:
    My question is what would have happened if the large population centers (not South Dakota) had carried on life as usual in March(festivals, large sporting events, concerts, crowded subways, schools, you name it?”

    You mean like Belarus? Less restrictions than Sweden and 1/10th the deaths. Their secret? They used HCQ+ as basic EARLY treatment.

    So what would have happened had the cures (yes plural) been allowed to have been freely used by the medical doctors instead of the murderous political restrictions?

    HCQ+Azithromyacin+Zinc (Dr Didier Raout, Dr Zelenko & others)
    Ivermecton+Doxycycline+Zinc (Dr Borody)
    Inhaled steroids like Budesonide (Dr Bartlett)